Recognising this fact, countries have also decided, as part of the Durban agreement, to explore ways to bridge the ambitious gap between the overall emission reductions that the parties will achieve by 2020 under the 2009 Copenhagen Agreement and the overall emissions trajectory to meet the 2C emissions target. The North American proposal would complete the co2 equivalent of 1.9 gigatonnes by 2020, about the same amount as the closure of nearly 200 coal-fired power plants. There is no more likely than a gradual reduction of HFCs in the Montreal Protocol to reduce emissions by 2020 from the level required before an international climate agreement comes into force, in order to keep the world on track to meet the 2-C target. One hundred and ninety-seven countries have signed the Montreal Protocol. , making it the only universally ratified UN treaty. In addition, the abandonment of SDGs resulted in a decrease of about 8 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent per year between 1988 and 2010. These avoided annual emissions represent about 5 times the annual emission reduction target of the first commitment period – 2008-2012 – of the Kyoto Protocol, which sets binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions for the industrialized countries that commit to it. As former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said, “Perhaps the most concluded international agreement to date was the Montreal Protocol.” Unsurprisingly, the reason why the Montreal Protocol has been so successful seems to be a mixture of structural, but probably most often circumstantial, reasons. The parties to the Montreal Protocol agreed at their 28th meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, on October 15, 2016, to gradually reduce CFCs. Countries agreed to add the list of controlled substances to the list of controlled substances and approved a timetable for their gradual reduction from 80 to 85% by the end of the 2040s. The first reductions by industrialized countries are expected in 2019.
Developing countries will see a freeze on CFC consumption for some countries in 2024 and 2028. The protocol achieved general ratification and was successful in reducing the production and use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances, with nearly 99% of ozone-depleting substances expiring to date. Studies suggest that by the middle of the century, the ozone layer will return to a level similar to that of the 1980s before significant depletion. It is therefore expected that two million cases of skin cancer per year will be prevented by 2030. At the end of the 31st meeting of the parties, which met in Rome from November 4-8, Stephanie Haysmith, communications officer at the Ozone Secretariat, explained why the Montreal Protocol was successful and what awaits the treaty. One of the reasons the protocol was successfully implemented was the compliance procedure. This was conceived from the beginning as a criminal trial. Its priority is to once again help Member States comply with the rules. Developing countries are working with a UN agency to develop an action plan to re-comply with the rules. If necessary, funds from the Multilateral Fund are available for a number of short-term projects. It is significant that in 2010, all 142 developing countries reached the 100% exit threshold for CFCs, halons and other SDGs.