The Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement is an association agreement between the European Union (EU), Euratom, Ukraine and the 28 EU Member States at the time (separate parts with the EU and Euratom). It establishes a political and economic association between the Parties. The agreement entered into force on 1 September 2017 and parts had been provisionally applied. The parties undertook to cooperate in a wide range of areas and to harmonise economic policy, legislation and regulations, including equal rights for workers, visa-free measures for persons, exchange of information and personnel in the judicial field, modernisation of Ukraine`s energy infrastructure and access to the European Investment Bank. The Parties undertook to hold regular meetings and meetings between Ministers, other officials and experts. In addition, a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area will be established between the Parties. The EU and Ukraine meet regularly to discuss issues and best practices in the implementation of the agreement. The committees meet regularly. Russian President Vladimir Putin has warned that customs union members of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia could impose protective measures in the event of trade liberalisation between Ukraine and the EU.  [j] The EU condemned Russia`s threats and called them unacceptable.
 Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov called on Russia to “accept the reality of Ukraine`s signing of the EU agreement” and denounced artificial barriers as unnecessary.  The European Coal and Steel Community was established in 1952 and consisted of six Western European countries. This would lead to the European Union in 1992, since the Central Powers have grown and the number of members has increased by 28 by 2013. The Union has a common market and is responsible, inter alia, for the conclusion of trade agreements. The Union has only competences conferred on it by its Member States and, where a Treaty covers areas in which it has no competence, the Member States become parties to the Treaty alongside the Union. While work on signing a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement between Ukraine and the EU first began in 1999, formal negotiations between the Ukrainian government and the European Commissioner for Trade did not start until 18 February 2008.  Until May 2011, there remained three outstanding issues that needed to be resolved under the free trade agreement: quotas for Ukrainian grain exports, access to the EU services market, and geographical names of Ukrainian raw materials. Beyond these problems, the agreement was ready.  Despite these outstanding issues, Ukraine was ready to sign the agreement in its current form. Although it wanted wider prospects for enlargement and access to the EU market for its truck drivers, Ukraine had more than many other candidates for the corresponding phase of the process. The final agreement was initialled on 19 July 2012.
 Like the AA, ratification of the DCFTA was blocked by the EU due to concerns about the rule of law in Ukraine.    These include the application of selective justice and the amendment of electoral laws. As a result, the role of Ukrainian oligarchs in sanctioning the agreement has also been questioned.  The association agreement between Ukraine and the EU, which has just been signed and is in the process of ratification, has become highly controversial due to the Ukrainian political crisis in 2013 and the Ukrainian crisis with Russia this year. When and how has the Association Agreement evolved? The Association Agreement is a pioneering document: it is the first agreement based on a political association between the EU and one of the Eastern Partnership countries and is unprecedented in its breadth (number of areas covered) and depth (details of commitments and deadlines). . . .